Geological Museum

ABOUT Museum

The idea of Geological Museum was initiated by the then Collector of Balaghat, Shri N. Baijendra Kumar. He thought that since Balaghat is a mining area a Geological Museum will be beneficial for the citizens and students. It will inculcate interest in them and they will also get expert opinion.

A hall in the newly built building of Archeological Museum was allotted for the Geological Museum. Dr. Santosh Saksena, Rtd. Professor of Geology was given the responsibility of establishing the museum. He requested his counterparts in various Universities and Colleges to send samples of rocks, minerals and fossils for the museum. The response was astounding. Very good samples of plant and animal fossils were sent by Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. Other samples were received from different Institutions. All the material has been exhibited in showcases, with their identity and location.

Recently, after intensive study and research, Life History, from origin of Earth to evolution of Man has been prepared and exhibited on 8 panels. This is probably the only Geological Museum in India which is open to general public.

Contact person- Dr. Santosh Saksena, Secretary, Geological Association and Research Cente and Curator of Geological Museum.

Mobile 09406751365 e-mail garc[dot]bgt[at]rediffmail[dot]com

santosh saxena
Dr. Santosh Saxena Curator

Panels displayed in the museum

after intensive study and research, Life History, from origin of Earth to evolution of Man has been prepared and exhibited on 8 panels. This is probably the only Geological Museum in India which is open to general public.



Geological time scale shows Era and their divisions with some distinct features and age. Earth originated about 4.6 billion years ago. It was lifeless. There were volcanic eruptions and long term primordial rains which filled the oceans. Life began in Pre-cambrian with development in sea- from unicellular to multi- cellular. They were in form of very small aquatic plants and algae. Impressions were found on stromatolites. Pre-Cambrian has been divided into Archeozoic (Lower and Upper), and Proterozoic (Early, Middle and Late). Development of aerobic photosynthesis in Lower Proterozoic, exogenous atmosphere and aerobic respiration in middle and algae, eucaryotes and procaryotes in upper division.



“Cambrian-(Early, Middle and Late) Plants and invertebrates developed in this period like trilobites and cephalopods. Surprisingly, trilobites were highly developed and this feature remains unexplained. Similarly, cephalopods are also well developed invertebrates.

Ordovician- (Early and Late). It had development of brachiopods and fishes for the first time. Graptolites were abundant.

Silurian- Sea plants and invertebrates developed. Fishes were also found. Graptolites disappeared.”

panel 3


Devonian- (Early, Middle and Late). It saw the rise of corals, brachiopods and lung fishes for the first time. First amphibians.

Carboniferous-(Early-Mississipian). Many non-flowering plants. Reptiles appeared for the first time.

(Late-Pennsylvanian)-Large forests developed which were responsible for coal deposits. Corals developed on large scale.

Permian-(Early, Middle and Late). Many varieties of invertebrates, but their extinction in the end. Trilobites totally disappeared.”

panel 4


Triassic- (Early, Middle and Late). Numerous dinosaurs, amphibians and reptiles developed. Ammonites also developed. Conifer forests supplied food for the dinosaurs.

panel 5

PANEL 5 Jurassic

Jurassic-(Early, Middle and Late). Ammonites were abundant. First birds, flowering plants and sea urchins. Giant mammals and dinosaurs were also abundant.

panel 6

PANEL 6 Cretaceous

Cretaceous-Early and Late). Giant reptiles and ammonites disappeared at the end. Flowering plants were numerous. Climax of dinosaurs and their extinction due to ice age.

Panel 7

Panel 7 Cenozoic (Tertiary)

Because of climate changes, many modern mammals and carnivorous animals developed. Giant birds appeared. Big mammoths had large head and big tusks. Gradually the head became normal and tusks smaller, as in modern mammoths. This was based on law of mutation. The effect of this law was also in other animals.

Panel 8

Panel 8 Cenozoic

Quaternary to Recent- Man appeared. Many mammals die due to glacial ice age. Based on law of mutation and survival of the fittest, many mammals developed along with grazing animals. Fresh water fishes and various aquatic animals developed.

Showcase in Museum

matalic ores

Showcase 1 Metallic ores

Samples have been obtained from all over the country. Ores of manganese, iron, aluminum, zinc, copper etc. can be seen in the trays, with their location. Beryl is used in atomic energy, tale for talcum powder and soapstone for carving have also been included.

show case 2

Showcase 2 Non-Metallic Minerals

There are different varieties of quartz. Transparent quartz is of optical quality and amethyst is used as a gemstone. Other minerals are tourmaline, agate, muscovite etc.

showcase 3

Showcase 3 Metamorphic Rocks

Various metamorphic rocks have been demonstrated. There is marble of Makrana and Jabalpur. Schist, gneiss, slate, phyllite etc. are there and some of the samples are from Balaghat.

showcase 4

Showcase 4 Sedimentary Rocks

There is lot of variation in sedimentary rocks. Samples of conglomerate, sandstone, shale clay etc. are kept in the trays. Limestone of Raipur has impressions of stromatolites. Different colored sandstones are from Pachmarhi.

showcase 5

Showcase 5 Igneous Rocks

Various granites, basalts and other igneous rocks can be seen. Intergrowth texture can be seen in pegmatite of Bellary. Secondary minerals, mostly of quartz are in the cavities of basalt.

showcase 6

Showcase 6 Fossils

Various plant and animal fossils can be seen in this showcase. They have been presented by Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. Beautiful impressions of leaves can be seen in some samples. Coral of Rameshwaram was used for construction of Ram Sethu.

showcase 7

Showcase 7 Assorted Samples

It contains assorted samples of quartz, pegmatite with uranium, imported coal, polished rocks, Banded Heamatite Quartzite etc. The lower rack has fossil wood from Niwas, Mandla.

showcase 8

Showcase 8 Assorted Samples

It has samples of calcite, mica schist and other rocks and minerals. There is a sample of graphite from Betul which is used for making pencils. The lower two compartments have manganese and copper ores (Local collection from Bharveli and Malanjkhand). There is a sample of native copper. The lower rack has assorted minerals and rocks with a big piece of agate.